Botanical Name: Tropaeolum majus
Native: South America
Hardiness: Frost-sensitive, tender perennial usually grown as an annual; perennial in USDA zones 10 and warmer.
Plant Dimensions: 10"–12" tall
Variety Information: 2"–2½" wide single flowers in shades of yellow, orange, mahogany, and cream.
Exposure: Full sun to part shade
Bloom Period: Late spring to frost
Attributes: Attracts Pollinators, Deer Resistant, Drought Tolerant, Edible Flower, Rabbit Resistant
When to Sow Outside: RECOMMENDED. 1 to 2 weeks after your average last frost date. Mild Climates: Sow in fall for winter bloom. Ideal soil temperature for germination is 55°–65°F.
When to Start Inside: Not recommended. 2 to 4 weeks before your average last frost date. Roots sensitive to transplant disturbance; sow in biodegradable pots that can be directly planted in the ground.
Days to Emerge: 7–14 days
Seed Depth: ½"–1"
Seed Spacing: A group of 3 seeds every 8" – 12"
Thinning: When 2" tall, thin to 1 every 8" – 12"