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Cucumber: Sow and Grow Guide

Cucumber: Sow and Grow Guide

Get ready, salads--home-grown cukes are on the way! Home-grown cucumbers have thin, tender skin that you won't need to peel. Cucumbers plants are fast-growing. It is best to train the vines up a trellis; the fruits will grow straighter and will be easier to find among the leaves, and a trellis frees up valuable garden space. This cool, summer, salad "must" is very easy to grow, and there is a cucumber variety to fit everyone's preference.

General Information

Pickling cucumbers are usually stouter and have drier skins that are ideal for absorbing pickle brine. Slicing cucumbers have thinner, less bitter skins and longer fruit. Pickling cucumbers can be eaten like slicers, and slicers can be pickled when young.

Monoecious cucumbers have both male and female flowers on any given plant, while gynoecious has only female flowers, therefore, a pollinator plant with male flowers is required for fruit production. Because gynoecious plants put energy into only female, fruit-bearing flowers these varieties are generally very productive and fast to mature. In the absence of male pollen, some varieties (parthenocarpic) produce seedless fruit. Often parthenocarpic varieties are gynoecious or have a high percent of female flowers.

Cucumbers produce a chemical called cucurbitacin, which produces a slight bitter flavor mainly concentrated in the skin that causes minor indigestion in some people. Varieties with less of this chemical are referred to as "burpless".

General Sowing

When to sow outside: Direct-sow outside 1 to 2 weeks after your average last frost date, and when soil temperature is at least 60°F, ideally 70°–90°F.

When to sow inside: If starting indoors, sow 2 to 4 weeks before your average last frost date. Cucumbers are sensitive to root disturbance; sow in biodegradable pots that can be directly planted in the ground without disturbing roots

How to sow

Sow a group of 2 seeds every 12" at a depth of ½".

Thinning

When 3 leaves, thin to 1 plant every 12".

Optimal Growing Conditions

Soil

Soil should be light, well-drained and fertile; rich in organic matter.

Water

Cucumbers have a shallow root system and therefore require regular moisture, at least 1" per week. Moisture is particularly important during flowering and fruiting, since 96% of the weight of a cucumber is made up of water. Consider mulching plants to aid in moisture retention. If plants don't get enough water, fruit may be curved or constricted, and may be bitter.

Exposure

Choose an area with full sun (6 or more hours per day).

Fertilization

Apply a slow-release, balanced fertilizer (equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) to soil before sowing. Since root system is extensive, fertilize the entire growing area evenly, as cucumber root are susceptible to fertilizer burn when fertilizer is applied too densely around the base of the plant.

Special Care

When cultivating for weeds, be careful; roots are shallow. If planting in containers, a minimum of 10" soil depth and 14" diameter container is recommended. Cucumbers are heat sensitive. Several days of temperatures in mid 90s or more can prevent fruit set. Consider providing afternoon shade using other crops or a shade cloth if heat is a concern. Non-parthenocarpic varieties are dependent on pollination by bees. Sowing bee-attracting flowers in the area can attract bees and therefore increase yield. Otherwise, hand pollination of these varieties will be needed. To hand pollinate, transfer pollen from one male flower to several female flowers using a paintbrush or similar tool. Female flowers have a miniature fruit at the base of the flower, while male flowers do not.

Harvesting

Do not let cucumbers get too big; plants stop producing if there are overly mature cucumbers on the vine. Pick regularly before fruits are bigger than optimal size for the particular variety. Cut the stem rather than pulling at the fruit to break off. Once picked, immediately immerse in cold water to disperse "field heat", which increases the quality and life of picked fruit.

Storage

Store dry fruit in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for up to a week, but for best quality, pickle or eat fresh as soon after harvesting as possible.


Cucumber Comparison

Variety Sub-category Type Heirloom/ Hybrid Plant/ Fruit Size Disease/ Pest Resistance Days to Maturity Noteworthy Other Common Names Add to Cart
'Armenian' Slicing Heirloom 8' vine, 18"–36" long fruit 65 Monoecious, burpless, more closely related to a melon than a cucumber. Heat tolerant. Yard long, serpent cucumber, snake melon.
'Homemade Pickles' Pickling 4'–6' compact vine, 1½"–6" long fruit Anthracnose, angular leaf spot, cucumber mosaic virus, downy mildew, and powdery mildew 55 Monoecious, good for small gardens/ containers.
'Lemon' Slicing Heirloom 3'–6' vine, 3½" x 2½" round fruit 65 Burpless, somewhat drought tolerant, and non-bitter.
'Marketmore' Slicing 4'–6' vine, 6"–8" long fruit Cucumber mosaic virus 60 Monoecious
'Parisian Gherkin' Pickling Hybrid 2' vine, 1½"–4" long fruit Resist to scab and cucumber mosaic virus; tolerant to powdery mildew 50 Gynoecious, 2015 AAS winner, good for small gardens/containers.
'Baby' Persian Slicing, Pickling Hybrid 3'–5' vine, 4"–6" long fruit Resistant to cucumber mosaic virus and scab, tolerant of powdery mildew. 48 Parthenocarpic, seedless thin skin, non-bitter.
'Poinsett 76' Slicing 4–6' vine, 7"–8" long fruit Anthracnose, angular leaf spot, downy mildew, powdery mildew, and scab. 65 Monoecious, heat and humidity tolerant.
'Spacemaster 80' Slicing, Pickling 2'–3' vine, 7"–8" long fruit Cucumber mosaic virus, downy mildew, powdery mildew, and scab. 62 Monoecious, good for small space and containers.
'Straight Eight' Slicing Heirloom 4'–6' vine, 8" long fruit 63 Monoecious
'Tasty Green' Slicing Hybrid 6'–7' vine, 9" long fruit Powdery mildew and tolerance of downy mildew 60 Japanese type, monoecious, thin skin, non-bitter, burpless, small seeds.
'Telegraph Improved' Slicing Heirloom 8' vine, 10"–18" long fruit 60 English type, parthenocarpic, thin skin, burpless.

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